"SUSTAINING THE FUTURE"
"CHEMOTHERAPY FOR THE SOIL"
Green manures have been used to help rebuild soils since the Dust Bowl days of the 1930's. "Bio-Fumigation" on the other hand is a rather new concept, coined about 25 years ago as a potential replacement for Methyl Bromide, which it is not! There is no current replacement for Methyl Bromide from a total pest control standpoint. Methyl Bromide was not without it's own faults, however. It was effective at wiping out pests, but it was also destroying the beneficial organism population. Even currently registered fumigants, chloropicrin and metam sodium/potassium, while not as destructive to atmospheric ozone as Methyl Bromide, are also very destructive to beneficial soil organisms. The close rotations of high value crops on many soils have elevated disease and nematode pressure so much that even 20x rates of chloropicrin and metam products are not controlling them. All the while the soil health is severely compromised from the repeated applications of these chemical fumigants. Even organic producers are experiencing elevated soil-borne pest issues from tight rotations of high value crops and replant issues in fruit and grapes.
IF WE'RE NOT CAREFUL, WE'LL LOSE IT
Metam sodium/potassium has been commonly used as a soil fumigant for decades. In it's early days, it was shown to be quite effective in controlling a long list of pests and diseases with an application rate of 40 gallons/acre. Over the years, we have seen a continual decline in the effectiveness of these fumigants. Some areas of the United States are now applying up to 80+ gallons/acre and still losing crops prematurely from the diseases or pests they were targeting. There was some work done in Australia that shows some of these organisms are actually digesting these carbamates. With the world continually trending towards more sustainable and less environmentally harmful practices, it is only a matter of time before "the plug is pulled". By implementing Caliente brand bio-fumigants into these IPM systems, we have been able to reduce fumigant rates and decrease disease/pest pressure all while increasing your organic matter.
NEMAT & TELONE II COMBINATION
Telone II is a preplant soil fumigant for control of all major species of nematodes, including root knot, lesion, stubby root, dagger, ring, and cyst nematodes. Telone II is a very effective nematicide when nematodes are present in the treated area. WSU's nematologist started doing research on Telone II applications following the incorporation of Nemat/Arugula bio-fumigants. In plots w/o Nemat, 20 gal/acre Telone II was applied, and results showed up to 12% damaged tubers. In the plots where Nemat was incorporated, 10 gal/acre Telone II was applied 5 days post incorporation. The results were amazing. All plots that used Nemat & 10 gal rate showed 0% damage across the board. The simple explanation was that when Nemat was grown, much higher populations of nematodes were coming up to the root zone to receive their poison. Without something attracting the nematodes, even 20 gal rate was not acceptable for most contracts.
As mentioned before, Nemat/Arugula is a wonderful trap crop for nematodes. Many growers around the world have implemented these Nemat/Arugula blends into their IPM programs as bio-control methods. Many orchards and vineyards have been planting these blends along the tree/vine rows. The Nemat will attract and trap the nematodes before they can affect the crop. The Nemat can also be mowed down multiple times in a season as long as you stay above the growing point. This allows for longer periods of nematode trapping potential.